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Skip Global Jump to section. The subject of Islam and slavery is vast. Nonetheless, it does provide a of regulations deed to ameliorate the situation of slaves.
Manumission of a slave is required as expiation for certain misdeeds Q. It allows slaves to marry either other slaves or free persons; Q. Despite this protection against one form of sexual exploitation, female slaves do not have the right to grant or deny sexual access to themselves. This was widely accepted and practiced among early Muslims; the Prophet Muhammad, for example, kept a slave-concubine Mariya the Copt who was given to him as a gift by the Roman governor of Alexandria. The enslavement of war captives is regulated, along with the purchase and sale of slaves.
While it is not permissible to enslave other Muslims, the jurists clarify that if a non-Muslim converts to Islam after enslavement, he or she remains a slave and may be lawfully purchased and sold like any other slave.
This rule closes a potential loophole allowing for slaves to gain their freedom by the simple fact of conversion. The law also prescribes penalties for slave owners who maltreat or abuse their slaves; these penalties can include forced manumission of the slave without compensation to the owner.
A man cannot simultaneously own and be married to the same female slave. The male owner of a female slave can either marry her off to a different man, thus renouncing his own sexual access to her, or he may take her as his own concubine, using her sexually himself. Both situations have a specific effect on the status of any children she bears. When a master takes his own female slave as a concubine, by contrast, any children she bears are free and legally the children of her owner, with the same status as any children born to him in a legal marriage to a free wife.
How have these laws played out in Muslim history? Slavery was a social fact in most of the Muslim world for nearly years, with large s of slaves employed in domestic service as well as commerce. Large-scale agricultural slavery, like the plantation slavery of the U.
South, was seldom practiced in the Muslim world. This was not due to any prohibition against such forms of slave labor, but rather to economic and geographical factors. This does not mean that Islamic slavery was not harsh, as some apologists have argued, or that masters were not sometimes brutal to their slaves. However, slavery did not always equal low social status. The conscript slave troops janissaries of the Ottomans are another example.
Most striking is the case of the royal concubines who wielded tremendous influence and amassed considerable wealth in the later centuries of the Ottoman empire. The issue of slavery in Muslim societies is not purely historical but has lingering contemporary effects, especially in certain parts of Africa and the Gulf states. Some majority Muslim nations — Saudi Arabia, for example — were among the last to outlaw slavery in the twentieth century. Vestigial effects of domestic slavery still exist in certain Gulf nations in the failure of police and lawmakers to protect immigrant household workers against potential abuses by employers.
Women employed as maids and nannies have little recourse against sexual coercion or harsh beatings; in some cases, those who have escaped and sought refuge with police have been forcibly returned to their employers. It is important to note that these women are not legally enslaved, and they generally receive compensation for their work that differentiates their situation from that of those in debt bondage.
However, because of the acceptance of controls on their mobility employers often take their passportsand the refusal of law enforcement officials to respond to complaints of maltreatment, they are particularly vulnerable to abuse. In some African nations, actual slavery continues.
Repeated attempts to outlaw slavery in Mauritania have had little effect. In the Sudan, Christian captives in the ongoing civil war are often enslaved, and female prisoners are often used sexually, with their Muslim captors claiming that Islamic law grants them permission citation.
The existence of actual and quasi-slavery is by no means unique to the Muslim world; slavery and slavery-like practices are found in numerous nations world-wide. Further, they are not found everywhere in the Muslim world; there specific socio-economic and political factors that help to for their existence. Still, the claiming of religious justification for slaveholding in some of these cases makes them particularly urgent to address.
While the vast majority of contemporary Muslims agree that there is no place for slavery in the modern world, there has not been a strong internally developed critique of past or present slaveholding practices.
In fact, modern Muslims have generally devoted little attention to thinking about or discussing the religious, ethical, and legal issues associated with slavery, perhaps because it is difficult to acknowledge and confront the scriptural and traditional permission for it. In contrast, slavery of a different type is conceptually central: the status of each Muslim as a slave before God is a slavery that can never be abolished.
The Feminist Sexual Ethics Project. Islam and Slavery The subject of Islam and slavery is vast.Are you a female slave
email: [email protected] - phone:(520) 912-1067 x 7343
Female Slaves: Sex Roles and Status in the Antebellum Plantation South